Electrons are the tiniest atomic particle known to man. Electrons are so tiny, no one has ever seen one. It is quite likely that no one ever will. An electron has a mass of 1/1840 of a proton.

Even though electrons are tiny, they are astounding particles. While they cannot be seen, their effects are easy to observe.  It is only by observing their effects can we understand how powerful they are and what they do.

Throughout all of the science articles on his website, it is important to understand an easily observable fact about electrons:

Electrons flow from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration through the path of least resistance.

In the universe, electrons exist in at least three different states:

  • Electrons can be bonded to an atom
  • Electrons can be loosely bonded to each other
  • Electrons can be free

Electrons bonded to an atom

Conventional Physics has determined that electrons are bonded to an atom.  Some suggest that most electrons are permanently bonded to an atom.  While this may be true in some cases, it is unlikely in the case of soft elements (i.e. Gold, Silver, Copper, etc.).

Soft elements conduct electricity.  Electricity is simply the movement of electrons on a conductive material.

Of the three (Gold, Silver and Copper), Gold is the best conductor of electricity.

According to Conventional Physics, each of these elements contains only one electron in the outer orbit.  If this is the case, the outer orbit bond to the nucleus of the atom would not be as strong as the inner orbits thereby allowing the electron in the outer orbit to be bumped by a new electron.

Electrons loosely bonded to each other

Since electrons flow from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration through the path of least resistance, the path of least resistance is most often the path of the electron immediately preceding it.  Sort of like geese flying in formations.

Electricity, light and radio waves are simple examples of electrons following the path of electrons immediately preceding it.  Actually, every wave on the electromagnetic spectrum is comprised of loosely bonded electrons.

If you can imagine a stream of electrons traveling through the air, each electron following the other, avoiding the atoms that may be present in the air, or the wall of your home, you can visualize that the electrons are following the path of least resistance by following the preceding electron.  (Remember that the electron is the smallest particle of the atom that we have identified so bypassing atoms is not difficult).  Periodically, an electron will get snagged by an atom causing the wave to be weakened.  This is especially evident in radio waves.  The farther you are from the radio tower, the weaker the signal.  The electrons in the radio wave have been absorbed by the atoms that are between you and the radio tower.

Free Electrons

Electrons that do not fall into the previous two categories are “free” electrons.  Free electrons can be produced in many ways.  When you read the article on light, you will see how electrons are freed from light.  When you read the article on electricity, you will understand how electrons are freed from electricity.

Free electrons are not free all of the time.  They can be bonded to the nucleus of an atom if they travel too close.

Electrons are also released from chemical reactions such as fire and batteries.  Common batteries (i.e. AA, C, D, Duracell or Energizer) are not pre-charged by the manufacturer.  The proper mixture of chemicals produces the charge when the appliance circuit (i.e. flashlight) calls for it.

Free electrons are also produced in a wood burning fire.  Some electrons from the burning wood are released in waves (light) but the majority of the electrons are released as heat.

Wood combustion is a fascinating topic in and of itself.

As a tree is growing, the tree absorbs electrons that are used to build molecular structures. A tree absorbs free electrons (heat) and bonded electrons (light).  A tree only absorbs part of the visible spectrum and other parts of the visible spectrum are reflected.

A green leaf on a tree indicates that yellow and blue light waves are not absorbed. Only the red portion of the visible light spectrum is absorbed.  Red is the coolest (fewest electrons in the wave) as opposed to blue (more electrons in the wave than yellow or red).

Because the green leaf has absorbed and broken down the electrons from the red wave, the tree has free electrons that can be used to bond different atoms together to form molecules that result in cell growth.

When the tree is cut down and burned, the chemical nature of fire causes the electrons that were absorbed by the tree over the years to be released as free electrons and waves. The result of burning the wood is heat and light; exactly the same thing that caused the tree to grow to begin with. The ash represents the basic atoms that were bonded by the tree during growth.

Free electrons are heat.  The absence of free electrons is cold.


Throughout these articles you will see references to “free” electrons and “bonded” electrons.  The first two categories of this article are “bonded” electrons.  Over time and space, all “bonded” electrons (waves) deteriorate into free electrons.  Since free electrons travel from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration, they will most likely end up in space contributing to what scientists call “dark matter”.

© 2007-2015 Bill Gavlas, American Professional Services – All content of this website is copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of the author

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