Light is a fascinating thing to study! There are so many aspects of light that we normally don’t think about in our daily lives. Consider …

Two byproducts in the process of making molten iron are heat and light. It doesn’t matter if any of the light from the flame below (or around) the iron reaches the metal; the molten metal will put off tremendous amounts of light. The light is so intense you cannot look at it without hurting your eyes.

So how do we get light from molten metal?

As the electrons are escaping the bonds of the iron nuclei on their way into space, the stickiness of the iron causes a vibration to occur. Some of the electrons are released in waves at the frequency of visible light. Scientists call these Photons. Other electrons are released in the form of heat.

I have read that Photons have no mass and I have read that Photons do have mass but it is insignificant. Since an electron has a mass equivalent to 1/1840 of a proton, I guess we could call that “insignificant”. I have come to accept that Photons do have a physical property, but not mass as defined by Newton’s Laws of Gravity.

When the electrons are released in the form of Photons, the electrons rely on the electron in front of them and behind them to stay in their position. The path through space is well defined and they can travel through the path of least resistance, which was immediately behind the electron in front.

The wave of electrons (Photon) can bounce off of an object. Because the human eye can absorb these Photons to a small degree, the bounced light gives us the perspective of an object.

If you stand outside on a sunny day and look at a red brick building, you will notice that you can estimate the distance from where you are standing to the end of the building. This is due to the fact that the light that is traveling from the farthest point of the building has decayed far more than the light that is reflected from the part of the building that is closest to you.

As the white light that is coming from the sun hits the side of the red brick building, the blue spectrum and the yellow spectrum of the white light wave is absorbed by the brick. The red band of the spectrum bounces off and is absorbed by your eye. The reflected light from the farthest point of the building must pass by many atoms and molecules before it reaches your eye. As the electrons pass by these atoms and molecules, some of the electrons get snagged and the light wave is diminished.

The light wave that is bouncing from the red brick building closest to you has a lot less to pass through and is more intense.

The process of the brick absorbing the blue and yellow spectrum of the white light wave causes the electrons to be freed from the wave. The freed electrons cause the temperature of the red brick to rise.

Photons (electrons traveling at a specific frequency in a defined path) cause two things to occur. A Photon is absorbed (totally or partially) by an object (producing heat), or, the Photon can be reflected (totally or partially) so we can see the object.

Light can also bend darkness. In a dark space, light can cause objects behind the light to be invisible to the human eye.

In the absence of light, there is no color.

© 2007-2015 Bill Gavlas, American Professional Services – All content of this website is copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of the author


Electrons are the tiniest atomic particle known to man. Electrons are so tiny, no one has ever seen one. It is quite likely that no one ever will. An electron has a mass of 1/1840 of a proton.

Even though electrons are tiny, they are astounding particles. While they cannot be seen, their effects are easy to observe.  It is only by observing their effects can we understand how powerful they are and what they do.

Throughout all of the science articles on his website, it is important to understand an easily observable fact about electrons:

Electrons flow from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration through the path of least resistance.

In the universe, electrons exist in at least three different states:

  • Electrons can be bonded to an atom
  • Electrons can be loosely bonded to each other
  • Electrons can be free

Electrons bonded to an atom

Conventional Physics has determined that electrons are bonded to an atom.  Some suggest that most electrons are permanently bonded to an atom.  While this may be true in some cases, it is unlikely in the case of soft elements (i.e. Gold, Silver, Copper, etc.).

Soft elements conduct electricity.  Electricity is simply the movement of electrons on a conductive material.

Of the three (Gold, Silver and Copper), Gold is the best conductor of electricity.

According to Conventional Physics, each of these elements contains only one electron in the outer orbit.  If this is the case, the outer orbit bond to the nucleus of the atom would not be as strong as the inner orbits thereby allowing the electron in the outer orbit to be bumped by a new electron.

Electrons loosely bonded to each other

Since electrons flow from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration through the path of least resistance, the path of least resistance is most often the path of the electron immediately preceding it.  Sort of like geese flying in formations.

Electricity, light and radio waves are simple examples of electrons following the path of electrons immediately preceding it.  Actually, every wave on the electromagnetic spectrum is comprised of loosely bonded electrons.

If you can imagine a stream of electrons traveling through the air, each electron following the other, avoiding the atoms that may be present in the air, or the wall of your home, you can visualize that the electrons are following the path of least resistance by following the preceding electron.  (Remember that the electron is the smallest particle of the atom that we have identified so bypassing atoms is not difficult).  Periodically, an electron will get snagged by an atom causing the wave to be weakened.  This is especially evident in radio waves.  The farther you are from the radio tower, the weaker the signal.  The electrons in the radio wave have been absorbed by the atoms that are between you and the radio tower.

Free Electrons

Electrons that do not fall into the previous two categories are “free” electrons.  Free electrons can be produced in many ways.  When you read the article on light, you will see how electrons are freed from light.  When you read the article on electricity, you will understand how electrons are freed from electricity.

Free electrons are not free all of the time.  They can be bonded to the nucleus of an atom if they travel too close.

Electrons are also released from chemical reactions such as fire and batteries.  Common batteries (i.e. AA, C, D, Duracell or Energizer) are not pre-charged by the manufacturer.  The proper mixture of chemicals produces the charge when the appliance circuit (i.e. flashlight) calls for it.

Free electrons are also produced in a wood burning fire.  Some electrons from the burning wood are released in waves (light) but the majority of the electrons are released as heat.

Wood combustion is a fascinating topic in and of itself.

As a tree is growing, the tree absorbs electrons that are used to build molecular structures. A tree absorbs free electrons (heat) and bonded electrons (light).  A tree only absorbs part of the visible spectrum and other parts of the visible spectrum are reflected.

A green leaf on a tree indicates that yellow and blue light waves are not absorbed. Only the red portion of the visible light spectrum is absorbed.  Red is the coolest (fewest electrons in the wave) as opposed to blue (more electrons in the wave than yellow or red).

Because the green leaf has absorbed and broken down the electrons from the red wave, the tree has free electrons that can be used to bond different atoms together to form molecules that result in cell growth.

When the tree is cut down and burned, the chemical nature of fire causes the electrons that were absorbed by the tree over the years to be released as free electrons and waves. The result of burning the wood is heat and light; exactly the same thing that caused the tree to grow to begin with. The ash represents the basic atoms that were bonded by the tree during growth.

Free electrons are heat.  The absence of free electrons is cold.


Throughout these articles you will see references to “free” electrons and “bonded” electrons.  The first two categories of this article are “bonded” electrons.  Over time and space, all “bonded” electrons (waves) deteriorate into free electrons.  Since free electrons travel from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration, they will most likely end up in space contributing to what scientists call “dark matter”.

© 2007-2015 Bill Gavlas, American Professional Services – All content of this website is copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of the author


When we were children we were taught how clouds are formed.  The story goes something like this:

Water is heated by the Sun, evaporates, and rises into the sky.  When the water vapor condenses, it becomes a cloud.  When enough water has accumulated, the water falls in the form of rain.

This is a true explanation and does satisfy the curiosity of children.  Since the question is answered so well, many adults never ask it again.  But what really happens in the formation of a cloud on the atomic level?

Have you ever wondered how millions of pounds of water can be suspended above your head?

Water is a “sticky” molecule.  Physicists claim that it has a negative charge meaning that it will bond with itself and many other substances.

The simplest way of understanding the atomic reaction that occurs to make clouds is to look at a pot of boiling water.  When we apply heat we flood the water with free electrons causing the bonds between the water molecules to release.  The electrons, from the heat, are then stuck to the freed water molecule.  The abundance of electrons, attached to the freed water molecule, moving from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration, lift the water molecule out of the pot of boiling water.  The water molecule will rise until the stuck electrons break free of the water molecule (in an area with a lesser concentration of electrons).  The water molecule is then suspended in space bonded to another element or molecule.

If we apply enough heat to the water, we will see bubbles forming at the bottom of the pot which rise to the surface.  There are so many electrons attached to the water molecules that it becomes a gas inside of a liquid.

On a larger scale, such as an ocean, heat is supplied by the sun in the form of light.  Some portion of the light wave is absorbed by the molecules in the water (not necessarily the water molecule) and the electrons are freed from the light wave.  The free electrons are then bonded to the water molecule and the water molecule is freed from its’ bond with the molecules around it.  Because electrons move from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration, the water molecule will go along for the ride.

There are other factors that must be taken into consideration however.  The temperature differential from the water to the surrounding air is going to increase or decrease the flow of water molecules.

If you live in a climate with changing seasons, you will often notice a fog rising off of a lake on a cold autumn morning.  The water is warmer than the air causing more water molecules to rise out of the lake.

Once the water molecule reaches a cooler part of the atmosphere, the extra electrons that were picked up on the surface of the earth, escape the loose connections they have to the water molecule.  Consequently, the water molecule stops traveling upwards based on its’ lighter than air characteristics.  It may be pushed higher into the atmosphere by the heat rising from the earth below.

As the loosely connected electrons break free of the water molecule, at colder temperatures, it now attempts to bond with other water molecules in close proximity to it.  The water molecule will attract another water molecule in order to “borrow” its’ electron.  As this “borrowing” continues, water vapor is formed into clouds.  Each water molecule is attracted to another water molecule because of its’ lack of electrons.  In essence, this interaction has created a gravity in the cloud that causes water molecules to be pulled towards each other.

If you observe clouds closely, you will often see smaller clouds being pulled toward larger clouds until the small cloud is absorbed.  It is fascinating to watch the gravitational pull exerted by the water molecules as they cool.

Technical Discussion

In the following discussion, the number of electrons bonded to either a hydrogen or oxygen atom are hypothetical.  Since electrons are so tiny, and move so quickly, it may be impossible to count the number of electrons surrounding an atom at any point in time and space.

In the earth’s atmosphere, oxygen exists in a gaseous form. In other words, it normally floats above the surface of the earth.  Hydrogen does not exist in our atmosphere.  It has long since traveled into space.

Hydrogen normally consists of 1 electron and 1 proton. Oxygen normally consists of 8 protons, 8 neutrons and 8 electrons.  If we add all of the ingredients together, (2 hydrogen atoms = 2 protons and 2 electrons + 1 oxygen atom = 8 protons, 8 neutrons and 8 electrons) we have 10 protons, 10 electrons and 8 neutrons.  Hydrogen does not have any neutrons to contribute.

In order to combine the oxygen and hydrogen to make water, either the hydrogen or oxygen must give up a total of two electrons so that the two single hydrogen protons can bond with the electrons in the oxygen atom.  This can be done with fire or a fuel cell.

The resulting atomic composition of the water molecule is 10 protons, 8 electrons and 8 neutrons.  The resultant bonding of the hydrogen and oxygen is very strong.  The bonds can only be broken through electrolysis or extreme temperature (3000° C).

Oddly enough, when hydrogen and oxygen are combined into a water molecule, the melting temperature is 32° F (0° C) which is a much higher temperature than either of the atoms that make water.  Hydrogen melts at -259.2° C.  Oxygen melts at -218.8° C.  The difference in the melting point of frozen water and the melting points of the atoms that make up water is over 400° F!

Since the hydrogen and oxygen atoms must give up two electrons in order to become a water molecule, the end result is no longer a gas in our atmosphere.  It is heavier than air and becomes a liquid that normally resides on the surface of the earth.

Since we now have more protons (10) than electrons (8), the water molecule will be “sticky”.  It will have a tendency to loosely bond with free electrons or to electrons in other molecules.

In order for the water molecule to rise into the air, the water molecule must obtain at least two extra electrons.  If the number of electrons attached to the water molecule reaches ten (the number we started with when they were both a gas), the water molecule will rise from the earth.  This is caused by the fact that electrons are heat and heat rises in a gravitational environment.

© 2007-2015 Bill Gavlas, American Professional Services – All content of this website is copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of the author

Death Penalty

How can someone claim to be a Christian and, at the same time, support capital punishment?  The person who started the religion they belong to was a criminal and killed through the use of capital punishment.  Would a Christian want that to happen again?

Christians are normally against abortion and euthanasia which makes them pro-life.  How can a Christian be pro-life and pro-death (capital punishment)?  It would seem as though that Christian has severely compromised themselves.

It would seem, if someone were really paying attention, that our government and courts screw things up so bad, we should never trust them with capital punishment.

© 2007-2015 Bill Gavlas, American Professional Services – All content of this website is copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of the author